The Great Pyramid's Geometric concepts.

Kheops Pyramid

Pharaoh's Khufu (Greek name Kheops) Per = House, known as "The Great Pyramid."

After Pharaoh Seneferu rule, his son Pharaoh Khufu (in Greek, Cheops) came to power and governed Egypt from 2551 BC to 2528 BC. His name is commonly translated as "Protected by the God Khnemu," an Ancient solar and water deity; who actually, represents the Sun God during the night. For such. He has been worshiped in ancient Egypt since antiquity.

Khnemu was associated with all previous monarchs that have ruled Ancient Egypt ever since. There were two famous Temples dedicated to Khnemu; one stands in Esna (or Isna) south of Luxor and the other is in Elephantine, an Island in Aswan where the First Cataract is located. Besides those, also were numerous shrines built consecrated to this deity through all Egypt.

The Architect Hemiunu is believed to have been the person responsible, of the project to build this famous Pyramid. Being a member of the Royal Family, grandson of the previous pharaoh, Seneferu, and a close relative, to the ruling pharaoh. And on top of all, he was also the Vizier and the highest Priest of Egypt, without doubt one of the most capable personage of the period. For such reason, Hemiunu was chosen to carry out that important project of enormous magnitude.

Pharaoh's Khufu or Kheops legacy is the greatest and tallest pyramid in Giza Valley. Also the tallest man-made structure in the world until 1888 AC, more than three centuries after the discovery of America, not quite two centuries from nowadays. An incredible human advancement, 4500 years ago, which had to have impressed the whole world at his time and millenniums after. Matter of fact, it is the most famous Iconic Egyptian Symbol, and number one, out of the "Seven Wonders of the World" monuments ever built in ancient times.

The approximate dimensions of this pyramid are: Ground-base over 750 feet (230 meters) by 750 feet (230 meters), and its height is about 480 feet (147 meters) high.

Sun rays reflections through the clouds.

A True Pyramid shape resembles a sunray appearing through a demarked clouds formation, that occasionally can also be seen during sunsets or sunrises, when mist or smoke are present in the Horizon. Which is the precise moment when the Sun seems to burst in rays.
For such events, among so many other reasons is why a sunray, was thought to be a connection link between the ground and the Sun's hypothetical afterward living region.
The precious gateway and means to achieve eternal life, somewhere in the mighty Sky in an imaginary paradise, integrating to the pharaoh's Sun God divine compound.

For such, Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops Pyramid was built with smooth walls, most likely resembling a Pyramidon and a sunray, emulating a ramp that was going to permit their souls, to elevate to the Sun's realm. Rather than using steps, like the queens pyramids that had an apparently symbolism association with the moon and night.

Pyramid slant angle

Pharaoh's Khufu or Kheops Pyramid has a slant elevation angle of about 51.50' degrees.

The Great Pyramid or Khufu (Kheops) Pyramid, the first and highest monument built at Giza, viewed from any of its side faces, is a triangular plane that resembles a ramp with a huge slope elevation, whose slant rise angle of about 51 degrees.

Because, Geometry was the science in which Mankind heavily relied on in ancient times. Not being a widespread knowledge but reserved for a few, was endowed with a magic mysticism. Hence, the slope or slant rise angle of a pyramid, which represents a triangle, in this case, also had a corresponding relation to other shapes like rectangles, steps, and stars that can be drawn from this angle.

Kheops Pyramid slope angle

A triangle, a rectangle, and a steps symbols can be made with the 4 X 5 height and with proportion and a seven points star from a circle, with the same 51 degrees slant rise angle whose sides dimensions make a Right Triangle.

By this method, geometric figures, maintaining its width and height proportions or aperture angles, can be converted into other geometric shapes like triangles, rectangles, steps or star, signs.

Therefore, since they believed that passing from a current state to another, thus, it is possible to deduct that these symbols were used to explain. How or why at different ages, their body transformed, from being a baby to young, mature and old or how they could reach other social or learning levels, following its Pharaoh path or probably even more.

Because, could also be taken into consideration that a triangle with the same proportions than the Great Pyramid's sides, that has a slant angles rise of about 51 degrees, can be divided into two Right (90 degrees) Triangles, each with equal slope angle. The reason why they are painted on red and the other black, so that they can be differentiated.

Thus, as seen in the figures above, this two right triangles together complement a triangular figure, much like one 0of the four Khufu's or Kheops Pyramid side, seen from the front. Detail, which at that time could have been taken in a similar hypothetical way of how a body and a soul makes one individual.

Furthermore, once set apart this two right triangles that make one triangle, and turning one of them upside down, to reunite again but in a different arrangement. Another shape is obtained, although, the new figure keeps the same volume area than the previous Pyramidal triangle has. Therefore, by making a figure form, to morph from a pyramid (triangle) to a rectangular shape, likely came to the conclusion: Since the entire Earth and Sky were thought to be a rectangle, the Pyramid was considered to be the mean to go from one to the other.

Moreover, changing the form of rectangle's diagonal line created between these geometrical figures, the triangular shapes that make the Rectangle, also transfigure this two triangles into two five step symbols. Nonetheless, their area, as well, did not change at all, continues having the same volume. Hence, another idea of sky connection way that consequently related the steps to the Night and the triangle to the Night Sky spheres.

Matter of fact, all this symbols or almost identical ones, were used as hieroglyphs, indicating that they did play a much important role in their Geometry conceptual reasoning.

Egyptian Goddess Seshesta

Seshat or Seshesta, the Arts, Time and Knowledge Goddess, was identified with the 7 points Star. And a dress made up of stars, representing the Sky at night.

Goddess Seshesta invented Writing and mastered most of the known Sciences, Architecture, Astronomy and Mathematics of the time.

Matter of fact, She, was the highest feminine supernatural being associated with knowledge and art. In fact, Goddess Seshat was related to all issues concerning culture and art matters, because, rituals, entertainment, science factors, and management technologies were of much significance for the well developing of the kingship wellbeing years.
Also, since Ancient Egyptians did not have a perpetual calendar as it is done today; thus, following centuries and millenniums; once the new Pharaoh was raised to the throne, they began to count again from zero.

Therefore, Goddess Seshat or Seshesta was also known as "The Lady of the Library and Information." The Royal Scribe with power over all the scribes. She supposedly recorded every historical event in the Sky, apparently carving in a Palm tree, all the nation's events, and Pharaoh's deeds during his entire current period.

Furthermore, this goddess was part of a God's Triad, composed of God Thoth (Ibis-headed deity) and his two female counterparts, Seshesta, and Mat, the goddess of righteousness and justice, which also had to do with the law and Pharaonic matters of organization and regulatory factors.
For such, in a way they were much like Isis and Nephthys, in part related to the Moon during the day and night, and even dealing with life here and the life after. However, most likely at other or different sky plain, levels or needs.

Seshesta Symbol

The design over Goddess Seshat or Seshesta seven point star appears to be snake ribs. Upside down, the horns of the Sky Goddesses, round as usually is represented the West.

Because this goddess, had her main worshiping center at An or Heliopolis, the principal solar center in Ancient Egypt from early times, and this deity as a woman was associated with the Moon and Knowledge.
For such, and having in mind that Ancient Egyptians, as is mentioned in the Book of the Dead, believed that the Sun during the night traveled, inside of a snake's body, and since they also gave anthropomorphous forms and names to sky event, to maintain is secrecy their sky mechanics knowledge.

Because, on top of her seven point's star there is always, some kind of Ark design that shapes as a snake rib. Thus, it is most probably that she was connected with the path of the Sun went during the night through a duck below after dusk. As they could not see the Sun pass through the sky during the evening as the Moon does, they imagined that he passed from West to East during the night, below the ground level, through the realm of the dead, using a snake's body.

Based on that idea, and taking into account that they also believed that the Sun died every day at sunset, as he was swallowed by the afternoon sky goddess. It is reasonable to say that both were dead, which clearly explains that this rib on top of the goddess sign is representing the entrance to a snake skeleton represented by the Seshesta sign. A necessary act, so that the Sun could be capable to rebirths again and each day on the eastern side of the sky.

What is more, because her multiple presences in Luxor temple, a Pharaoh's worshiping center, indicates its solar relation.
Therefore, if Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops chose to build his pyramid with a slope or slant rise of 51 degrees that corresponds to the angles that conform the seven-point of Seshesta sign, was because of his high inclination toward Sun worshiping. A well-known fact because he had moved the Royal Necropolis, to Giza, closer to the city of An (Heliopolis in Greek) than Dashur or Sakkara are, showing its concepts preferences.

Pharaoh's Khafra Geometrical allegory.

Pharaoh's Khafra (or Khefren, his Greek name) Pyramid at Giza Valley.

At the time, when the Pharaohs ruled Egypt and were buried at Giza Valley, about 4500 years ago, there was also a pyramid that was named UR, which, means Great in their ancient language.
But, it was not Pharaoh's Khufu or Kheops Pyramid (The First Pyramid) that was known today by such name, since, in antiquity its name was, Khufu's Horizon at first. It was Khafra's or Kheops pyramid, today known by the Second, the one who originally was entitled to that name.

However, because at the time when western visitors started to be acquainted with the Giza pyramids, as architectural monuments. Consequently, after measuring the pyramids, because Pharaoh's Khufu's pyramid was the biggest of all, it was rewarded with, The Great Pyramid name.
Although, when hieroglyphs were deciphered, as these monuments names, already were well known and significantly widespread internationally. By then, it was certainly too late to make a name switch.

On the other hand, even so that Khafra (or Khefren) pyramid is just a few meters lower than Khufu's (or Cheops) pyramid when looking from below, and comparing both pyramids, Khafra's pyramid looks more impressive.
In part, can be said, because, it is the only pyramid that still holds its original stone casing at the top, which is a factor that illuminates its impressive appearance. In fact, it is only the width and height proportions the cause of its impressive optical effect. Which makes Pharaoh's Khafra Pyramid look bigger than Khufu's pyramid.

Pharaoh's Khafra or Khefren Pyramid was built with a slant rise angle of about 54 degrees.

Matter of fact, since Pharaoh Khafra or Khefren Pyramid, has a rise shaft angle of 54 degrees rather than 51 degrees like his father did.
Therefore, even so that it is a few meters shorter as mentioned before; from the ground level, this pyramid appears to be higher than Khufu or Kheops monument. Reason enough, why it was named the Great Pyramid in Ancient Times.

It is sure that dimensions play a prominent role in those matters; however, proportions also play a significant role to stand out. An aspect that Pharaoh Khafra or Kheops in truth took real advantage.
Apparently knowing so, since that way he did not really exceeded his brother Pyramid, that could have been taken as an offense, to try to overcast him; since, Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops at that time most likely was too popular.
Even so that, as time passed, almost all his images disappeared. However, most probably it was done much later a vandalism likely done by groups that wanted to erase him from the kingdom memory, to make other gods stand up. Since he led Egypt through a period of great prosperity never equaled, hence worshiped by many dynasties later.
Something similar to what happened with Pharaoh's Amenhotep III temple during the 18th dynasty. Whose, magnificent temple rivaled Thebes.

Pharaoh Khafra or Khefren did not come to power right away after his father passed away. Before him, his brother Pharaoh Djedefra ascended to the Throne for a relatively short period of about eight years. Djedefra, besides being the king, he also became the Highest Priest of An or Heliopolis the Sun's major worshiping Center. The reason why, he built his Pyramid close to this city.
Nonetheless, he did make the Sphinx at Giza Valley, a monument dedicated to the Sun god Horus, but, also had temple's functions. Matter of fact, he chose his father face to build this monument and not his; an event, which shows, the immense respect for Khufu or Kheops and the intensification of Sun effervescence at that Time. Because, the Sun God represented the spirit of all the Pharaohs that ever lived. And the ruling king was his live-image in this world. And Khufu or kheops was thought as the Sun itself.

However, the geometry of Pharaoh Khafra or Khefren clearly shows a drift towards or inclination to worship the Spirit of the Dead Pharaohs rather than the live ones.

Khafra or Khefren pyramid, differ in geometric proportions, so they also must have changed the conceptual ideas.

It is noticeable that Pharaoh Khafra or Khefren pyramid shows a different rise slant angle than Khufu or Kheops pyramid, which, generated an entirely different geometric proportions, definitely this detail shows that its design was base in another distinctive Symbolism than the other pyramid offers.

Because, the rectangle from this geometric dimensions yields a 3 by 4 figure, therefore, the Steps Symbols, now only has three steps rather than seven, used by the previous pharaoh.
Hence, the Three Steps ideogram was used to write in hieroglyphs God's Osiris and Isis names. Gods who are associated to the throne, as well the Moon or the Sun at Night. Osiris was the King a Judge of the Night Sphere, the realm of the dead, who represented the spirit of all the Dead Pharaohs that ever ruled in this world.

On the another hand, the five steps symbol, like the one shown in Khufu's previous geometry, is associated to God Shu, a god identified with the sun disk and the creation of the Day, truly, very far away from Osiris Night realm.

Also, is good to notice that fact that Pharaoh Khafra or Khefren side proportions of the triangle 3, 4, 5, are related to the Pythagorean Theorem. The knowledge that was divulged in Greece in relatively recent times. A fact, which shows that this practice was also a known thousand of years before in Ancient Egypt and likely other civilizations.

Furthermore, regarding the Star configuration: By dividing a circle into five equal parts can be made a Pentagon whose internal isosceles triangle has a 72 degrees which make a pentagon related to the five-point star rather than, 51 degrees that make the seven points Star like seen previously in his father's geometry.

In a Pentagon made with Isosceles triangles sector of 72 degrees and two adjacent 54 digress angles, can inscribe 5 points Star, which also is an identifier symbol that was used for a different Goddess.
Thus, in this case rather than representing Seshesta with a Seven Points star. With the Five Points stars, this symbolism alludes to Goddess Hathor, also known as The Leidy of the Stars.
However, although that both are Sky Goddess, indeed hold quite different concepts, which also involves various attributes and worshiping centers.

Therefore, by changing the pyramid proportions, is possible to reason that Pharaoh Khafra or Khefren turned back from the previous Pharaoh's concepts towards a more conciliatory approach toward different ideas from other Influential Conceptual Centers that also had. Hence, a smoother ideology to efficiently rule all the territory peacefully.


Goddess Hathor: wears a Star headdress that entitles her as the Lady of the Stars.

Do to the fact, that the Star, which appears in Goddess Hathor headdress at Dendera Temple, also designates her as The Lady of the Stars or Lady of the Afterlife World.
Indeed, she must also be representing a Night world. The five points Star symbolism also lead to certain phases of Goddess Hathor (Het-Her) as Sky-goddess, whose name translates as The House of Heaven, the Lady of beauty, fertility, love, music, pleasure, which also can be said in other words can say, "Enjoy and be Happy."

Since she could offer to the deceased, an effortless living condition, and widely experience the best of foods and drinks and all the imaginable pleasures of this world whenever desired forever and ever in the afterlife. Ideas that show an entirely different Life approach perspective about the 7 Stars Seshat goddess of austerity, hardworking and development.

Motivations which show… That even that these the same monuments look much alike, father and son had different imminent life attitudes, and likely was the reasoning or reflection of the people who followed them. Bottom line, the Second Pyramid was motivated by ideologies with Day and Night differences from the First. And a fact showing that they believed in two or more different worlds, with values apart in the afterward.

The sky stars were drawn like a Seastar and Goddess Hathor headdress sign as Lady of the Sky. Thus, also Lady of the Afterlife World.

One of the many details showing that Ancient Egyptians, believe in the existence of two afterwards-worlds, being one of them a Water element, is the way they represented the sky stars in their Tombs and Temples.

The Five point Stars that Ancient Egyptian used to decorate their Sacred representations of the Sky was made by ornamenting the ceilings with Sea Stars. For the reason that, those five stars rays or legs, are depicted with rounded points and a small circle at the center, same as the Sea stars have; and since, sea stars have different colors, in ancient Egypt, ceilings were painted which in various colors, as well.

Matter of fact, some stars are painted Red, which is the color that they used to designate one of their hypothetic Heavens. Nonetheless, by using this method, they could also identify other levels, states or worlds in the afterlife. The five points Star angle factor design, as well, has a Geometric relation to the Three Steps Symbol, used to represent god's Osiris and Isis originally the gods to all related to the Throne.

As well they were the live regenerative symbols. Osiris was the Afterlife judge, and Isis, the Mother Goddess, the source of life. Nonetheless, since all the Ancient Egyptian Goddess were mapped one over the other, also carried their attributes.
For such, goddess Hathor, also was the Mother of all, and the goddess that protect childbirth. However, as she is also represented by a Cow and the Cow. And being the cow one of the most advantageous animals, as food resource and benefices this creature gives to a non-mechanized agriculture community, like Egypt were at that time, did play much significance to solve their needs in the afterlife as well.

Hence, Goddess Hathor was believed to be of immense support and assistance in the afterworld and goddesses were identified with the Sky. Then, their headdress was the indicative if she was either representing the Night or Day Sky at that moment.
A feature that backs the idea that with the Sea Star crown; thus, in that circumstances, she is representing the Night in Alter-wards world. Hence, the spirit or soul of all previous former Queens that ever ruled Egypt.


Great Pyramid' multiple Sky' worlds Concept.

Goddess Hathor: Sky's anthropomorphic representation at Dendera's Temple ceiling.

Perhaps, the most important means or improvised ancient tool to track in the Sky or celestial bodies' mechanics was a dry tree. As it is looks, the space between the hands of Goddess Hathor, that appears to be a tree, drawn with the stem and branches, made out of five points stars symbols.

Matter of fact, the stars are aligned in a straight line like a measurement instrument, and also because this imaginary celestial tree is standing over, the hieroglyph for Horizon, precisely, where the goddess hands appear to be touching the skyline. Moreover, being this allegory a ceiling a Sky anthropomorphic representation of the dedicated primary goddess at Dendera Temple, one of the greatest architectural manifestation of its time, evidently transcends its significant symbolic valued.

Hence, in all possibilities, using the dry branches of a real dry tree, like a Sun clock, is possible to map the Sky bodies movements, height, location, and changes in their day or night or/and yearly behavior. Like the sun, the moon, stars, and planets pass through following the ecliptic (sun Path) direction, as they are seen to travel in the firmament in a continuous changing trajectory.

On the other hand, also is possible to take advantage of this tree just as a sun clock by observing its shade, size and position changes on the ground, when illuminated by the Sun in its East-West trajectory during the Day. And even made possible to perceive the movements of the Full Moons during a clear night. Much like as Pyramidon works in its functional performance.

Actually, a tree was a mere instrument, but much practical and useful, without any doubt, the most reliable means of determining time and dates at that time.

This illustration shows the Zenith and Nadir Points and its Four Cardinal Points straight line projection, which describe a pyramidal imaginary Sky sector ambiance.

Going a step more, beyond the utility of a Pyramidon, deep into his roots and relation to the Pyramids distinctive form. Hence, the only related useful thinkable idea has to be the Sky itself, on accounts that it was expected to be the most significant place to live in the afterward.
Which is an idea showed by the fact that Ancient Egyptians even guarded their most precious things without use, believing that they could enjoy them later in the afterlife, of course, somewhere in the Sky.

The truth is, since the Pyramidon alike the Pyramid present sharp structural angles, is a detail that shows a Sun relation concept. For the reason, that was thought that the Sun's trajectory across the sky was done in a straight line, thus, also, a symbolic meaning representing truth and rightness. In contrast, with the Sky (Stars) and the Moon and planets as they seem to have a smoothed undulating trajectory.

Matter of fact, by projecting an imaginary straight line from the four cardinal points to the highest point that the sun reaches in the Sky at noon, known as the Zenith. Makes an imagined enormous sky ambiance or sky sector that precisely bring to mind the Pyramidon or a True Pyramid outline.
For such, having the Sun its own and two apparent daily and yearly trajectories, then It is proper to say and thinkable to imagine that this three room spaces, stand for three corresponding dwelling places in the Shy, of course, with different height and volume, as well.

Great Pyramid's interior plan. Likely done representing tree imaginary Sun Circles, Sky stages in the afterlife.

Pyramids initially were thought to have been built just for burial purposes only. However, in what is known about Pyramids today, the lack of evidence to prove that statement, by now, is in a long way to be explained.

On the other hand, since there are so many sketchy finishing details and the presence of various niches, and the way chambers are distributed and arranged. Hence, all this is a complete paraphernalia, which indicates that this pyramid must have been built with the fundamental idea of a ceremonial Temple to access different significant Sky levels.

Therefore, since, mummification was done during a seventy days period, these ceremonies were done there, not only for the pharaoh but also for those who had the honor to be integrated into his spiritual components. Which is the only thinkable real reason why people were incentivized to built such colossal edification.

Nonetheless, considering that the pyramids were consecrated to the ruling Pharaoh, if there is not much evidence of his burial location in the pyramid, his tomb can not be too far away from the proximity area. Like seen in third dynasty's Pharaoh Zoser tomb about the Steps-Pyramid at Saqqara. The Pyramids of Khufu or Kheops and all the other Pharaohs' monuments of the Fourth dynastic period are found, but up to the moment neither burial place has been precisely determined. Let's hope that someday they will be found, since there is much to learn from them.

Meanwhile, back to the subject, because the Great Pyramid internal structure shows tree separate room stages, which are likely representing tree different heavenly dwelling places, two above and one below the ground level. Without any doubt, since this Pharaoh had relentless sun worshiping inclinations, each chamber must have Sun sky levels implications.
Most probably, the lower compartment refers the Sun during the Night the realm of his mummified body and the other two, likely stand for the Sun during its Day and Yearly events, the apparent dwelling place of his Soul and Spirit components.

Botton line: Whatever, additional meanings that they also must have, this chambers represent the tree Great Sun Circles, which they are expected to be represented by the Eye Symbol, as well.

The Great Pyramid has three rooms, each having its own expected projection concept concerning the Sky's afterlife's transition.
Starting with the First Camber (Great Pyramid plan): That could be reached by an Underground pathway.

All Pyramids had a descendant-shaft apparently to place the Pharaoh's body in a Sarcophagus (the Greek word for Coffin).

The lower chamber was accessed by descending shaft, an architectonic feature that all the Pyramids had, which in theory, represents the primary way to reach the corresponding location of the final resting place of the royal Sarcophagus containing the Pharaoh's mummified body.
After death, the pharaoh's embalmed body, was thought to transform into a Sahu (eternal-living body) that was awaited to live forever in some place in the Sky, in an imagined form associated or combined with God Osiris conformation.

Hence, the descending shaft, represented the entryway to the Dark or Watery-World, the realm of the dead, in which the Pharaoh had to navigate to achieve the Eternal-Waters in the Sky or Night Heaven (the night, sky half-sphere). Which correspond to the Dark Inverted Pyramid, shown, in the Spheres illustration seen previously, inside the half sphere ambiance below that related to the Night.

Dendera Temple water worshiping enclosure.

Although, done much later but also present in Karnack, Elephantine and many other Ancient Egyptian Temples that apparently had the same lake conceptual idea.
Therefore, the use of a descending shaft to a reach the water element realm like the pyramids does, although, however, concerning the Pyramids, this symbolic concept is completely hidden and if there ever was anything, it is already vanishes.

Lotus and Animal' life renewal symbolism.

A Lotus Flower and its insect's bursting environment had high life renewal significance. Since, Ancient Egyptians painted this flower over the Sky Hieroglyph, adducing frenzy of life but somewhere beyond the Sky.

Because, around a Lotus flower, there is a great abundance of insects has been taken since the awakening of our civilization as a particular life effervescence site. Probably, among so many other explanations is why, in ancient Egypt the head of the pharaohs was depicted, coming out of a Lotus flower as a symbol of rebirth and the continuity of life.
Nonetheless, that allegory, also backs the idea of rebirth by passing through the water environmental, to be able to flourish in a new life once again but in another element.

Fish are also plentiful where the lotus blooms.

Where there is an abundance of lotus flowers, also is a substantial concurrence of fishes, since they prey on insects.
For the reason that Ancient Egyptian related a dead fish to a corpse is probably that they considered Man and Fish as the primary living thing of their elemental environment, and insects and birds to the air element.

Bursting sparks of light, in a stream of water or in a water pond, when the Sun is in front, indicates the presence of fish.

When the Sun is in front of calm water superficies because of the wind or fish movements, occurs some light sparks that resemble the stars at night. As well, in the Sea when there is a high full moon, the eyes of the fish below, shine like the stars, but with their own S like movements like the Moon does about the Ecliptic during the month.
And it is most probably why, in ancient times fish was associated with the spirit of the deceased.

However, their soul or Ba became related with a man-headed bird, their body's spiritual part was related to fish, apparently thinking that after death their Body and Soul probably will continue living but in other different elements.

In the Ancient Egyptian similar Elysian Fields afterlife representations is shown that birds and fishes are populating the corresponding Air and Water elements.

In this ancient Egypt' afterward allegory, where the deceased is represented in the afterlife as two individuals, one holding two birds and the other two Fishes, hence, a manifestation of their life continuity concepts, projecting their existence into other elements, Water, and Air rather than Earth that is where we live.

Therefore, birds and fishes must be in the representation of the spiritual components of other individuals with whom they expected to share the afterlife. However, the ones they grip or stab apparently are theirs.
Anyhow, most probably all of them are representing living spiritually in different elements, which can be related to a spark of light associated with the stars, thus, life in some other state of living.

By the way, at the bottom in the center of the figure, with the fishes, are also depicted other animals, which did play very significant role in their Mythology, the crocodile, and the duck.

The Ancient God Sobeck was represented as a Crocodile or a Human Headed Crocodile.

The presence of a crocodile in that allegory, is very meaningful, because, God Sobek, the Crocodile or human-headed Crock is one of the oldest Egyptian deities since he is related to the primeval waters in the creation myth. He was supposed to be the creator of the Nile River.
A mythological figure, but quite controversial, as he was also associate with the Sun God Ra, and Horus, and others Gods, as well associated with the dark forces of the Night, nonetheless a god related to the renewal of life.

Since God Osiris was associated with the night and water elements, like Sobek, and taking into account that when a Pharaoh died, he become integrated to Osiris. For such, being in the pond together with the fishes, one of his food sources and knowing that the Crocodile, even so that is the animal with the strongest bite, does not chew their food, swallow its prey.

Like they expected to do Goddess Hathor. Swallow the Sun after Sunset and take him through all her body to renew its existence. So that, at the break of next day, he could shine again and resume his life again.

It is also important to notice that when this animal attacks, it does in a straight line as the Sun seems to go across the Sky during the day, an additional characteristic to take the crocodile as a sun' night representation.

Therefore, when he did feed on fish most probably was taken as an integration act, same as de the Pharaoh' spirit becoming part of the Osiris body that made up by all the ancient rulers spirits of those who ever ruled Egypt.
By so, it is probably that they considered that the fish there or eminently the ones that are speared by one of the individuals.
Which most likely are depicted in this way as the crocodile feed in alive and dead fish, thinking that their spirits will be integrated again in concern of the water element, by becoming part of this related God in that matter.

The duck was used to identify the Earth God Geb or Seb.

Concerning the Creation Myth, after the self-created God Atem produced Gods Shu and Tefnut, Her body full of stars represented the night. It was God Shu, the Air element who separated her from the ground, by lifting her from the middle to let the Sun, shine and initiate the first Day ever. This mythological couple gave birth the Earth God Seb as it is mentioned in the CreationTale, and then God Seb and Goddess Nut, procreated, Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.

For the reason that the duck live and multiplies on the Earth Element is associated with it, however since it fly's and swims, also has a link to God Shu his father, the air element and goddess Tefnut his mother, the water element. Reason why, the duck is depicted in both places, populated by birds and fishes in the allegory.

The Heron was also another Ancient Egyptian life regenerating symbol.

The Heron, in the Egyptian Mythology, is known as the Benu Bird, which is the equivalent to the Phoenix Bird of the Greek Mythology, is the ideal bird to explain the spiritual integration concept.

However, in a pond where the Lotus Flower grows, can be seen the insects coming to the Air element from larvae's that live in water, to get assimilated by the fish that lives in the in the water part. Then, the fish is eaten by birds or crocodiles that live either on the Earth or Air Element.

Based on what they saw happening in nature, and conscientious that the fetus develops in the fluid of his mother's womb. Therefore, if we had lived in another element, they concluded that our dead body will continue living in the Earth-element and the Spirit and the Body Spirit on the Air and Water elements. Nevertheless, life will not end it will continue to exist in a form or other, just changing or transforming in looks as it passes from one element into other, as a geometric figure does.

Although, there were other differences, since the Crocodile sometimes eats fish alive but generally eats dead fish and other animals, on the other hand, the Heron also eats fish but live. Since this bird is well equipped with a long neck and peak to do so.
The Heron also differs from the duck, although the two are birds. The Herons are no swimmer birds but live in the water, and nest in trees while the Ducks do it on the ground.

Therefore, all this characteristics indicate why the chose Heron, as it is more apparent to represent the Air Element.

Furthermore, a significant feature that the heron has been the S shape of her neck that resembles the Snake's body a characteristic of much significance, related to the entire celestial mechanics.

Because the monthly moon has an undulating displacement pattern in the sky, was represented by the snake.

Humans from the early awakening times of our civilization have lived in close relation with all type of animals. Although, that snakes were feared because of their dangerous activities.
However, since early times, people, being aware that during the night, this helpful animal, kept the place clean of rodents same as a Cat does, had medicinal components and its skin also was highly appreciated for making their apparels.
For such, people took advantage of nonvenomous Python and venenous Cobra like snakes to live in more comfort, and for such, they also were highly respected.

Consequently, as it was also common to see a snake from time to time during the day same as the moon seems to appear. Then, because snakes do not have neither legs nor arms, displaces itself in land and water in a wavy manner, same as the moon seems to complete its monthly astronomical calendar trajectory through the Sky at Night.
Since it was believed the Sky to be a water and land dwelling place in the afterlife, it had great similitude with the water and soil environments, where the snakes deal.

Therefore, eing those, suggestive enough behaviors to identify the Sky with the Snake, came out with the idea that there was a connection between Snakes and Moon.
Hence, for the reason that a serpent close matched the characteristics of the moon's sky mechanics behavior. The Snake was mention instead of the Moon, to create an atmosphere of respect and fear when looking at the sky. And that way, made ordinary people avoid to observe the sky activities, and find out how it works. As it was the astronomy knowledge at that time, used by particular groups to secure its power and influence over the rest. For such, the Moon was given a zoomorphic snake form. Which also endowed the moon with a greater glow of mysticism and respect.

As well, and perhaps a more important motive that enhanced the subjective values of snakes, from a deeper philosophical point of view is that this animal does not masticate like the crocodile. But also, after swallowing its prey, then, goes through a skin renew procedure, which was taken as a life integration and removal processes.
A peculiar characteristic which apparently was also associated with its four moon cycles. Where the Moon Shines and then disappear completing a cycle or circle of the life. As well, coinciding again with women' monthly period time. Hence, Snakes were also taken as an important symbol of life renewal.

Approximated moon' yearly zigzagging course along the Ecliptic (Sun's Path) inside the Zodiac' border lines.

The Moon during the year presents twelve full moon cycles, which divides into twelve sectors the Sky. An imaginary sky-band where the Moving Stars, (Ancient Name refereeing to the Sun, Moon, and planets) travel during the year on their own individual zigzagging course. Going up and down the Ecliptic (Sun's Path) demarking and an imaginary wavy path inside a long band of about 18° degrees high by 360° degrees around as it seems to look like a circle.
Then, when summer and winter paths are plotted together resembles a Sky's imaginary chain on what is better known commonly by the Zodiacal band.

The Goddess Horns (Cow Horns) play the same role as the Serpent but in other Sky's Day or Night cycles or levels.

Serpents and Horns do to their wavy form, both were used to represent the demarked up and down movements of the Moving Stars, as they follow the Ecliptic or yearly sun' path. This actions, describes an imaginary sky ribbon, like a headband in the celestial sphere, a detail which makes possible the astrological calendar, a legendary Sky band, which also is known today as the Zodiac.

Hence, a band was seen in the headdress of the Egyptian goddesses, since they also represent the Sky, although, at a different level. However, because the cow is an active daytime animal, its horns indicates doings actions during the day, and the serpents, even so that they are present during night and day, their activities are more frequent in the dark.

Therefore, this characteristic was applied in allusion to the corresponding parts day and night that make one entire day, and why Queens and Goddesses also wear them. .

Kom Ombo Temple, Sun Gods, ritualistic representation.

In this wall in Kom Ombo Temple, about fifty kilometers north from Aswan, even so that it was built during Ptolemaic (Greek Kings) dynasty, 180-47 BC period, but, still maintains its Egyptian Symbolism. Nonetheless, it was Thutmose or Thutmosis III the pharaoh that started to build this temple, in a location that was frequently us to established garrisons by many Pharaonic Dynasties.

Accordingly to Egyptian concepts, the Kom Ombo Temple was dedicated or consecrate to Gods Sobek (Crocodile). Who, in a way was a kind of afternoon god, of characteristics the same idea as that of God's Set had. However, this temple since it has a double entry shows that it was also dedicated to another deity. Which, in this case, was Horus the morning falcon god, the opposite of the other god.

Nonetheless, as both are solar gods, and taking into account that after the morning, comes the afternoon, but after afternoon, the morning comes again. They are describing time going through a conceptual constant time cycle. A rotation in a circle, nonetheless, it is a Circle. Furthermore, because, in this temple walls, there is an illustration that presents: On the left sides the King and the Queen as divine beings, apparently, substituting Gods Horus and Hathor as the Daylight Skys Sphere' principal solar deities.

Then, since there are also present on the other side of this manifestation, three gods, and each seems also to have or are the counterpart of God Horus. Given that, two of them, are depicted with a falcon heads, the most important characteristic of God Heru or Horus.
Nonetheless, one presents the Moon on top of his head rather than the Sun, and the other wears the White Crown or Osiris headdress, thus both are compliments of the Sun' life circle. Moreover, the third one has crocodile features and God Amon's plumes at the top of the head as an identifier.

Hence, all three of them have, in a way or other characteristics that point out, the sun during the night. Therefore, they are sun's counterparts, although, representing three different Sky orbiting cycles or Sun circles. Thus, whatever, their meaning was, or for what they did stand for, they are positively manifesting three complete Sun Circles.

The Great Pyramid' Upper Chambers
  completed the 3 Sun' Circles symbology.

Great Pyramid' Middle Chamber (Great Pyramid' plan).

Because the Middle Chamber door entrance shapes like a Five Steps-Pyramid, where this topic has been covered extensively, explaining how is that the five steps Pyramid geometry with its 51° degree angle has a definite relation to the seven-point star.

For such, in a way or other, also a strong association with Goddess Seshesta and God Thoth, the realm of the Moon credited at that time as the fountain of knowledge and the pathway to a higher heaven dwelling place. Hence, most probably is that this door was designed with the idea to represent, the doorway to a particular location is the Sky.

This chamber was likely used to perform, an after-life ritual, to allow the spirit of the Pharaoh and those integrated with him, reach together an appropriate sky level. However, since this door entry, look more elongated than a simple five steps figure should.
Thus, made to represent not one but two different side proportions, then, it is certainly that its design also contains additional information concerning their Sky symbolism or Geometrical conceptual ideas that were in trend at that time. Which mean that they were made to satisfy not one but multiple concepts, a mix or proses of related functions to be performed.

On the other hand, this figure also could have been done to please different groups of people that participated in the event with another approach and fulfill their thoughts, as well.

In the Narmer Palette, the small personages carrying the Pharaoh' sandals, each has on top of their head a different points star.

Narmer Palette, a First Dynasty allegoric object, is where can be seen that in the front and small rear of this palette are depicted two personages, carrying the Pharaoh' sandals, each has on top of their head a different points star. Hence, associates the seven point star with the Pharaoh', White Crown or God' Osiris Crown, that has incumbency with the Moon' realm, thus God Thoth and Goddess Seshesta, as well.

On the other Hand, the six points star, painted on red, appears in the Red Crown ensemble. Being this the counterpart of the previous palette face, most probably is relating that side scene to a Sun God like Horus or Ra. Equally, to the Ancient Egyptian Goddesses of the North and South, concept that uses the same Crowns display. One is depicted as a Serpent the other as Vulture exactly two opposite counterparts, like a Day that has night and day cycles but make one single feature.

The Six Points Star, in Pharaoh' Narmer time, was associated with the Red Crown.

The Six Points Star, in Pharaoh' Narmer time, was associated with the Red Crown. Since a circle has 360° degrees, when its area is divided by 6 gives six Pie like portions of 60° degrees each came up, it is an easy way to make a six points star, but you need a protractor to measure the Angles.

Then, for the reason that at ancient times, there were no precise instruments, people were in the need to use practical methods to apply geometry to their daily life needs. Thus, one of the ingenious or useful ways to draw an equilateral triangle was by measuring the diameter of the circle with a rope divides in two, which is the circle' radius. And then go around the circumference making a segment of that length, and by so the circle border is divided into six parts.

Another way, to make and an equilateral triangle with just a rope. Can be done by measuring the base with a cord, fold it in eight parts, find the middle of the base by using 4 units of the total size, draw a perpendicular line, and make it as long as 7 of those units which make the altitude of the triangle. From the top of this line, make two additional lines to connect the upper part with the two end points of the baseline.
The Result is a triangle with angles close to 60° degrees by fractions that, in everyday practice does not make much difference.

To make an equilateral triangle with flat, manageable materials, such as paper, wood or a metal sheet and others with a ruler. Also, can be done making a rectangle with straight or right angles and 4 by 7 sides, then cut in half the box in a diagonal way, to make two triangles.
Then by turning around one of the triangles, and put then to together by their altitude side. As a result, an equilateral triangle is made.

However, this (4X7) rectangle cannot be divided into two equal step symbols like in the 3 by 4 proportions, that permits to make two identical 3 Steps figure or the 4 by 5 proportions that yield two 4 steps.

Nonetheless, comes out two 4 steps symbol but enclosed by two parallel lines. For that reason, is most probably those parallel lines were used to signify the borders of the Ecliptic Line, or, a fraction, of the entire band, where, the moving stars seem to transit, a Sky sector also known as the Zodiac.

The Pharaoh exercising the Sekhen (Power sing) apparently given by Gods Hathor and Heru or Horus.

Since, in this illustration there are two images of the same Pharaoh, one is small, but the other has the same height than Goddess Hathor and God Heru or Horus standing in front of him. The sizes show equal level and power, however, as the Pharaoh holds The Sekhen sign power, is clearly deductible that this sign attribute was given by them.

Therefore, this representation indicates that to make possible for the Pharaoh to acquire such authority, and because these gods are Sky deities, he must ascend to a higher Sky level. Nonetheless, since God Horus is depicted with a Falcon Face is necessary to take a little detour to explain the incumbent of that symbolism in Ancient Egypt' Mythology.

Since our civilization awakening humans because they lived in close relation with Nature, took it as example and source of learning about their conscious reality, seen that all that exists in our natural surroundings, continually transforms and recycles. Then, to respond their inquietude to where we will go after our life cycle and being aware, that we come to this Earth environment from being a fetus that lives in a water element, and our body eventually will go under the ground and was recycled like everything does in our natural environment. However, also being mindful that besides our material components, the was something else, that can not be seen or measure, as they thought that the air was. Because when we breathe and renewing the air inside, is probably that made them believe that life was a bond that maintained these elements together as one. Fo such, when life ended these elements broke apart, Water and Earth elements made the Body, because hair and nails continue to grow after death, and Air and Fire elements, the Spirit, since air always has a temperature.

Therefore, as it is obvious that our being in the afterward will continue living in an Air element and using Nature as an example because birds live in the Air element, associated their characteristics and behaviors to a future imaginative existence in that ambiance.

The Ancient Sky Goddess Nekhbet symbolized as a vulture, likely represented the highest Skay stage.

Knowing at that time that there are birds, which live and nest on land, another nest in trees, and those who nest and fly in high places. So, most probably they came up with the idea that there were also three levels in Sky, which when translated to the Sky mechanics, did correspond to the Sun' True and seeming orbits, with their own Day and Night or Summer and winter cycles each.

That, as they were willing to believe that whatever they see happening in Nature, also had a relation to the afterward world to come, adopted that reasoning as True and Real. Hence, they did spent moments of their everyday' living activities and guarded their most precious thing foreseeing their future existence in those elements, Most of all, keeping the same social order that they did have in this world.

The Falcon God Horus is also presented with the same Sky' Symbolic decoration.

Although that Goddesses Nekhebet and Uatkhet represented, north and south Egypt, they certainly also must have the corresponding incumbency in concerning matters to the Sky.

Because, Nekhebet was demarcated as a vulture, a bird that fly's at high altitude, which climbs to the sky circling in spirals, nest in high places, feeds of dead bodies and take it as food to his chicks whose nests are at high-grounds levels. Don't bite swallow, thus, insinuates integration, like thought, to happen to the dead Pharaohs, who was expected to integrate to Sky spirits.

Correspondingly, her counterpart was Goddess Uatchet, a serpent, in contraposition to the vulture, the snakes go under the ground, which correspond to the Osirian kingdom.
Hence, completing the circle made of day and night cycles.

But, the Falcon is another type of bird, with entirely different characteristics, attacks in a straight line the Sun seems to go from east to west during the day.
As well, kills and swallow their victims fresh and not already dead by other means like the vulture.
Furthermore, complements with Goddess Hathor and as his counterpart, has God Set, the Afternoon and Old Age deity in opposition to youth and the Morning God as he was.

Bottom line, birds besides their masculine and feminine attributes, because of their world apart characteristics, show that this symbolism shown by birds in Ancient Egyptian Mythology stand for two Sky levels entirely diverse, as well.

The Great Pyramid, interior ascending-shat, leading to the upper main chamber, enclosing a sarcophagus.

The ascending-shat, leading to the top main chamber, is the amplest space within this Pyramid, Obviously done obeying some Sky concepts applied to their afterlife belief.
This enclosure leads up to the antechamber of a larger room with a rectangular form. Indeed, it is the most spacious room of all the chambers, as a matter of fact, it is the only chamber that contains a sarcophagus.

On the other hand, besides its marvelous architectonic achieving in such early times, showing a vast knowledge of materials resistance and their capacity to calculate in advance such engineering building technology.
Because all the effort dedicated to this climbing alley, perhaps it played one of the most important roles in the corresponding rituals that were performed there.
Likely believed as the main pathway to reach the highest Pharaoh' spirit dwelling place.

The Third Chamber (Great Pyramid plan), Pharaoh's Khufu sarcophagus? An altar? Or just an imaginary Sky communicating link?

Whatever the reasons were, nonetheless, this King was so powerful at its time, that changed the Pharaohs' burial place, from Memphis to Giza.

Also transformed the temples alignment, from North-South to East-West direction, which indicates a broad and significant variations in concepts and beliefs.
As well, entirely altered external Temples to Pyramid proportions, since the volume of the pyramid greatly exceeds without comparison all temples and even the total burial complex size that was built in front of this building.

Furthermore, because the constructions in the front and back of this Pharaoh' Pyramid are plentiful, means that many important kingdom personages constructed their Mastabas (burial home) at his side, instead of other sacred burial places that were used in Ancient Egypt had more preferences for him than any other traditional God.

For all that, leaves no doubt, but to say that Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops was the most influential Man before his people as ever happened in the entire Pharaonic Period.
As a matter of fact, this Pharaoh mast had been taken as the God Sun Ra itself, as people gave him that kind loyalty or veneration and even can be said more correctly deification since they had proceeded to handle their burial in such particular way.

A Matter of fact, since this chamber had to stand for the highest level point in the Sky. Then, why is that this sarcophagus is relatively too small for such personage? Was it a symbolic coffin? An Altar? Or some kind of Niche to be used as a pathway to communicate with the Pharaohs Spirit afterward during special ceremonies?

The truth is that there are more questions than answers. However, because there are not signs of pillage or intentional destruction, but since there is not even a coffin cover, and this Temple or/and Tomb complex had to be finished.
Then, is possible that all the items concerning this matter were taken away and hide by his follower, somewhere in a cache like was done with the 18th dynasty pharaohs, that were safeguarded in an in a secreted enclosure in the mountains and later found by chance in modern times.
Or a precaution took after the burial ceremony to avoid being desecrated in times after.

True Pyramid

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