Inverted Pyramidon’ Obelisk Link.

Light' ray entering into a room, through a hole in the ceiling.

The Sun Light that comes through a hole in the roof that has top and bottom square apertures lets the light pass through into an entirely dark room. As these openings differ in size, gives to it side walls a trapezoidal form, which resembles the interior of Pyramidon with its tip cut.

Nonetheless, likewise the Pyramidon, it also plays a significant role, to pinpoint the Sun’ movements and location in the Sky, except that rather than using a shade projection to perform its functions, instead, generates a pointing Light beam to signalize Time and Dates, wherever it is projected. The reason why it can be called an inverted Pyramidon.

Since this Sun Rays’ can be directed to the floor, columns and walls to date times and events. Hence, it was a more advantageous method than using just the Pyramidon’ shade.

Nonetheless, since the population augmented, and more people wanted to participate in that kind of momentous events. Then, the need for more space was highly in demand. Because pyramids were built with thick blocks lacking much of room in their interior space, thanks to the use of columns, Egyptians were able to build buildings with much needed spacious rooms for the new concurrence to perform the appropriate ceremonies.

For such, the use of columns beside satisfying that need of accommodation and as well gaining in the presence, by showing an adequate, standard for what they were representing there, most likely some place in Heaven.

Also, since these new practices of Sun light-beams systems were more efficient, reliable and were performed in a closed rather than an open environment, which permitted to conceal and guard with more easiness their astronomy knowledge.

Abydos

The New Technology display, undoubtedly outpaced the Pyramidon, Sun's Shade presentation.

The lack of visual elements of common use today, at that time, it must have been very impressive, as they had the technology to direct a ray of light. Which illuminated an individual detail of a particular pictorial theme painted on the wall, in a chosen day and at the precise time to exalt the subject. As it can be seen in one of the chambers of Seti II Temple in Abydos. Undoubtedly, it gave to it a sense of a supernatural act of great transcendental emotion.

"The Sharp Edge" Light Beam technology become a more valid method to determine Time events more precisely.

The new, Sun Tracking system technology, not only made possible to calculate more accurately festivities, Sky events and all the necessary affairs in a Yearly Calendar but also permitted to implement colorful illustrations and light effects to all these events.

The Time events now were shown with figures in color and themes with characteristics related to the yearly hour detail, the precision of these manifestations increased tremendously, thus, Sun tracking observations gained enormous advantages for Calendar purposes. With all of that was enough reasons for Ancient Egyptians to set aside and leave the Pyramidon methods and Pyramid passion, which was the main interests during the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty, which lost its considerable luster by the New Egyptian Empire time period. As numerous people were now much more interested, looking for temples to participate.

The Temple entrance Pharaoh Ramses II at Luxor originally had two obelisks that look like the previous Light beams that were shown at Abydos temple.

The shape of this Obelisks actually resembles much the square shaft sunbeams projected at Abydos Temple that was seen before. According to Ancient beliefs, it was expected to represent the Morning and Afternoon Sun.

(Clik to see how it works.)

Because the elongated light beams in those rooms, appear to be glowing obelisks and because they are originated from what looks to be the interior of a Pyramidon. Hence, the Obelisk probably represented a Sunray or the Sun’s light itself during the Pharaonic period.

A light beam coming out of the flashlight or torch makes clear the relation of all the Ancient Egyptian architecture to the Sun’s Light concept.

As well, explains and relates its significance to the Pyramid, Pyramidon, Obelisk, Mastabas, Temples and Altars concepts and relation to the ever ruling Pharaohs eternal living spirits represented by the presiding Pharaoh.

This visual strength feeling that the height of the torch does, when applied to the building structures designs, giving a different effect of power or importance. Thus, this illustration, make easier to understand the Hierarchical structural configuration from one building structure to another. Hence, the difference between a Mastaba, Temple, Pylon or a Pharaoh's Obelisk and even Columns. Although, taking into consideration that the Round-shaped Columns could be representing the Moonlight rays and the Square ones the Sun rays.

To conclude, Egyptian building structures conceptual design, since it is based are based on a Light Ray Symbolism, its height, and angle of elevation varies to show its hierarchical authority as it becomes steeper.

Giza Pyramids

Palatial buildings with obelisks, columns, and statues in sitting mode, as the temple's ornamentation in later times.

This Giza structure, which presents, pharaohs sitting statues and small size obelisks, of Pharaoh Ramses II at Luxor Temple but of much smaller sizes. Evidently shows that the concept behind, as already known in at the time Giza was built.

Nonetheless, because the decorative object that looks like a small Obelisk, can also be interpreted as a thin Pyramidon. And their function is related to the shade that makes the Sun’s path in the Sky during the day. Hence, it shows the transition and relation from one to another including the Pyramid itself.

The difference relays in the fact that as the new building method permitted to make bigger interior rooms, where the light projection outpaced the exterior shade cast for time and dates determination.
Consequently, the practice of other technologies and Symbolism that were related to the external Pyramidon started to become disused. Hence, the Pyramids construction totally declined, as they did not have any more the symbolic supremacy over the Sky mechanics that were endowed once. Thus, as their value became diminished, were set aside till eventually discontinued and faded over the centuries.

For such, pharaohs chose tunnels inside the mountain of the West Plateau, as the new Royal burying place for the New Egyptian Dynasties, rather than Pyramids as their final resting places.

 

The pyramidal burial trend setting.

Giza’ Pyramids viewed from the West. Shows that Pharaoh Menkaure or Micerino Pyramid marks the beginning of the decline in this burial trend.

Pyramids at Giza follow this order, Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops (its Greek Name), the first Pyramid at left, is the biggest one ever built at Giza, A fact, which also marks the highest point that reached the apogee of the of the Old Egyptian Empire, during the Fourth Dynasty. From there on as it can be appreciated, that the second pyramid (Middle), built by Pharaoh Khafra or (Khefren) even though it is a little bit smaller from the side view, because of its proportions looks bigger from the ground. Thus, both pyramids can be considered to have the same standard.

Because by the time of the Third Pyramid that corresponds to Pharaoh Menkaure or Micerino (its Greek name) was finished, although that even now it’s a substantial structural building.

However, despite it has three small pyramids on its South side that complement its assembly. The change is quite noticeable when compared to Khufu’s and Khafra’s adjacent pyramids, undoubtedly can be appreciated that its appearance enormously diminishes.

Moreover, taking into account that this Pharaoh did not entirely completed his Pyramid, at the time he passed away, compromising his son Shepseskaf with all the necessary deeds to finish such commitment, shows a tremendous decline in a short period.

Therefore, can be said that the last pyramid is the milestone that marks the decline, not only of the Fourth Dynasty but also the Old Empire. And thus, the Pyramid’s construction as well.

Pharaoh’ Shepseskaf Mastaba at Sakkara.

Pharaoh’ Shepseskaf Mastaba has a rectangular construction base of about 656 feet (200 meters) by 246 feet (75 meters), which indicates a possible height of 59 to 60 feet (about 18 meters) high. Shepseskaf was Pharaoh’s Menkaure son and the last monarch of the Fourth Dynasty, and the only pharaoh of that Dynasty, who broke the tradition of pyramids burial tradition. Instead, He built likely a two stages Mastaba for His eternal resting place.

Do to the fact, that one of his daughters married the High Priest of Memphis, although that it is not an absolute factor, gives a good idea Pharaoh Shepseskaf had an ideology change. However, build its memorial monument to Sakkara in Memphis necropolis area, apparently it shows an excellent approach.

The Priesthood of Memphis area firmly believed in a myth of creation related to the world that we live, which states that the all the land that can see, originally came from the depths of the Eternal Waters as a Mud Mountain.
A Trapezoidal mastaba likely represented also symbolized a mountain of Mud. As well, because Mud also represented the underworld was close related to the regeneration like Nature and thus like God Osiris. A god that accordingly to their mythology rose from the dead after he had been murdered and buried.

In this area, there was also another Memphis myth related to the Creation of the World, revealing that mud is to be understood as the source of life. Since clay was used on God’s Ptah potter's wheel, to create all the living things that inhabit this world. Thus, at Memphis, was believed that every living thing was made from a piece of molded mud and a blow of his God’s breath.

Whether it is, coincidence or not, Pharaoh’ Shepseskaf Mastaba the primary structure (Double terrace) and height are a very similar building built at Trujillo, a city in the northern region of Peru known as “La Huaca del Dragon.” Although, a few thousand years later, however, the material that was used is Adobe like the Ancient Sakkara Mastabas.

Furthermore, to complicate these things concerning the intercultural construction comparison affairs. It turns out that many Stone blocks characteristics and styles that were used in Egypt to build Pharaoh Menkaure or Micerino Pyramid also are present in Cuzco, Peru. Where many Inca building’s stone forms and other details look so much like what is found in Egypt. It gives a strange sensation when visiting Cuzco, like if you were doing so during Pharaoh’s Menkaure time period.

Additionally, even so that True pyramid and Mastaba correspond to different philosophical or religious ideas apart. However, both developments were done by Shepseskaf, who apparently maintained an appreciation for both and the power to make tolerance prevail.

Moreover, the constructions with Stone blocks were done by the Incas in Cuzco, are in the South West region of Peru and the Adobe bricks, Mastaba like structures were built in the North West region by the Chimu civilization.

As well, these technologies or developing methods that seem to have intercontinental coincide also were done in Ancient in Peru during the same time period, and likewise were backed by two different Solar and Lunar ideologies like it happened in Giza and Memphis. However, since they represented two various groups which did not have a strong mutual Leader in between. Hence, eventually led the Chimu and Inca Civilizations go to war.
At first the Incas were victorious over the Chimu, however, since this happened at times close to the arrival of the Spanish civilization in that region, the Chimu later allied themselves with the Spaniards and avenged their defeat.

Soon will be a link to another site, now in construction, showing what has been said.

 

Abusir' 5th, and 6th Dynasties Pyramids.

Typical True Pyramid built during the 5th and 6th Dynasties, which shows the return to this practice once again.

Since Abusir is located in the Northern area of Sakkara in the direction of Heliopolis, seems to indicate also a definite closer relationship between this Fifth Dynasty towards Heliopolis than the last pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty. And the reason why, the pharaohs of the Fifth Dynasty also did build Solar Temples in Abu Gurab, which also is in Heliopolis direction.

The True Pyramids built during the 5th and 6th Dynasties did not change much in their triangular-side shape. Although they present a different aspect, because they are much smaller in size, have used different building materials with their own peculiar finishing style.
Thus, making their looks significantly differ from the Giza monuments and not having the sufficient assets as the others, for such, they eventually have lost their original form. Matter of fact since the casing in these Pyramids have deteriorated, today they appear to be Steps and not True Pyramids.

However, studies showed that the steps structure of this Pyramids also did had a casing or filling material that covered all their assemblies. Hence, being this particular aspect, the element determinative between a Step Pyramid and a True Pyramid concluded that the pyramids at Abusir also were True Pyramids at the time that they were built.

Since their internal terraces-structure now can be seen, because the casing or filling materials had slid to the ground, also permits to see, how the techniques to build the terraces have changed. Showing that their internal structure again. It was done resembling the superimposed Mastabas set up like it was used to build the Third Dynasty Sakkara Step Pyramid, instead of using smaller terraces like those that were employed by the Fourth Dynasty in Giza.

Abusir (House of Osiris): Memphis, northern area that was chosen by the Fifth dynasty to build their temple and pyramids.

After 2490 BC, during the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, also considered by many as only one Family, the average size of pyramids diminished in heights and proportions. The construction techniques about the Pyramids Structure also experienced a likely change.

However, most of the pyramids at Abusir, including the last Pyramid built by Pharaoh Pepi II (the longest ruling pharaoh, 2246-2152 BC and last pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty) at South Sakkara did not reach a height over 200 feet. (60 meters), as they were lower than Pharaoh’s Zoser Step Pyramid (203 Feet / 62 Meters) during the Third Dynasty. Hence, pyramids never ever again came even closer to the greatness attained before, by the pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty at Giza or Dashur.

On the other hand, the temples built during this parallel times on the Eastern sides of the pyramids did increased in proportions and thus considerably gained in size. Which makes understandable, to see that the sacerdotal group at this religious center, had acquired much importance and strength of the Pharaoh's power and Wealth.

Abusir was a Necropolis North of Sakkara, also associated with Memphis, which gained importance during the Pharaohs of Fifth Dynasty.

Pharaoh Sahure (2487-2475 B.C), the second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, built his pyramid (previous photo, the pyramid behind the columns) at Abusir, a place north of Sakkara. Although, that his pyramid looks small it is close to 160 feet (50 meters) high.

However, it is relatively small if compared to the Monumental Pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty. Even though that what is left of this immense temple of great finish, is only about 10% of the original size that this Temple had. It is much bigger than the corresponding frontal Temples than the ones of the Giza Pyramids present.

Because, this Temple dimensions significantly surpasses its pyramid component, clearly denotes that deities that this temple had, were of much importance than what the Pyramid stands for at that particular period of Time.

A small portion of Pharaoh Sahure (Fifth Dynasty) Temple ceiling carved with stars at Abusir during the 25th century BC.

The time spent to make the particular work done seen in this decorative roof fragment carved with stars shows the intricate work that was done on the whole temple area. Which means, they spent much time and had a broad knowledge related to this matter, to be able to choose the materials, type, color, and other characteristics that these stones have.
Nonetheless, the sufficient resources spent cutting and shaping the stones, transport, then, polishing and the general elaboration to finish the entire temple complex.

Therefore, analyzing all the effort that was devoted to the temple, which is enormous in comparison to the work dedicated to the pharaoh's pyramid. Evidently shows that the sky and its deities had increased their importance compared to the Pharaoh’ Sun during the day representation.

Pharaoh’ Sahura cartouches are inscribed in this Round columns.

In concordance with all that has been said before, the round columns also had a Lunar or Moon worshiping significance, related to God Osiris and Ptah, because even so that they were thought as an Invisible Night Sun spiritual form, also had Night and Noon attributes.

Matter-of-fact, Round columns have much importance in the temples at this particular time period, since the worshiping of the Pharaoh’s Spirit of the Dead Sovereigns took much significance during the ruling of this Dynasties.

As well, as it can be noticed, the columns are placed in a rectangular chamber, that keeps high similarity to the porch or antechamber, where are the columns at the entrance of the palatial mastabas seen before at Giza.

The Temple lintel also bear the Pharaoh’ Sahura name.

Nonetheless, since the temple’s lintel maintains the Square Angles shape, the Red color of the stone, and the total inscription of the Royal Cartouche and titles, denotes that Solar or Sun worshiping was not wholly set aside.

The reason is, as it has been said according to their beliefs, states that after the Pharaoh passing away momentous to become God Osiris (the spirit of all de deceased ruling Pharaohs). Will transform at break of dawn by the first rays of light, into God Horus or Heru, Ra the Sun God itself, the spirit of all the Pharaohs that ever ruled Egypt to guide the Ruling Pharaoh at the moment.

Leading pathway with two Square Columns to Pharaoh’ Unas pyramid at Sakkara.

At the end of a straight road in Sakkara, are these two Square columns, indicating the grounds where is located Pharaoh, Unas Pyramid. Famous for the Funerary Text decorating its interior walls.

The road is likely representing Sky’s Sun path and the two Square columns, the entry to a Sky place, determined in the Zodiac. Since, In Ancient times, the years started to count after each Pharaoh was crowned, and the columns bear Pharaohs’ Unas Golden Name (The Crown Name).

Then, it is most probable that such allegory is referring to Great Zodiac, the actual Sun orbit, which is use to determinedness Eras. However, during the Pharaonic Times was also divided into various determinative divisions and sectors according to the time that each king ruled Egypt, likewise a year was divided into months and Dekans (10 years periods).

Although, from this point of view Pharaoh' Unas looks like a hill, originally was cover with polished Red Stone plates as it is going to be shown in the nest picture.

Pharaoh’ Unas pyramid was built in the northern sector of Sakkara.

The Last Pyramids made during the Old Egyptian Empire were as following: Pharaoh Unas (23-75 B.C), ninth ruler of the Fifth Dynasty and last pharaoh of this dynasty, also built his Burial Temple and Pyramid at Sakkara. Pharaoh’ Unas Pyramid whose dimensions are approximate: a construction base of 58 m by 58m and height of 43 meters is a relative small pyramid, but it is well-known because of its craftsmanship.

This pharaoh, who was the first pharaoh to add carved Hieroglyphs texts, in the interior of the funerary chamber, these carved texts in the stone walls, today are known as the Pyramid Texts. A tradition that shows a strong inclination towards the afterlife worshiping, a practice that was continued by other pharaohs that ruled after from there on.

Pharaoh Pepi II (2278-2184 B.C), fifth ruler of the Sixth Egyptian Dynasty, this monarch managed to make practically, the last Monumental Stone-blocks pyramid in South Sakkara, Which is close to Pharaoh Shepseskaf Tomb, the ruler of the Fourth Dynasty, in Sakkara’s Southside. If it is coincidence or not, Pharaoh's Pepi II Funerary Temple also has a Mastaba-like structure like the previous Pharaoh.
Showing by this common fact that all these pharaohs buried different periods of time, dis choose areas close to others pharaohs that had similar beliefs and worshipping practices, that were compatible with their beliefs. In this field is also found Pharaoh’ Djedkare Isesi Pyramid that was built during the Fifth Dynasty, with similar looks and dimensions. Nonetheless, Pepi II pyramid is considered as the end of the Six Dynasties and also the Old Egyptian Empire historical period.

After the Old Egyptian Empire period came what is called the First Intermediate period, a period in between the times when just one single head, ruled the total existing Egyptian territory. Nevertheless, during this time period, Pharaoh Ibi, the third partial Ruler of the Eighth Dynasty, built a pyramid that probably had 69 feet (21 meters) high, in the Sakkara area. But it is not known if this Pyramid was ever completed since this pharaoh only lasted on the Throne, only two years, and for such probably there was not the sufficient time to complete the pyramid.

However, Pharaoh Ahmose Eighteen Dynasty built a Pyramid at Abydos 130 feet (40 meters) high with a Base of 172 Feet (53 meters) but was not made as a Tomb, which likely used as a Temple to Honor it's spiritual integration with God Osiris. Because Abydos was the main worshiping center of this God.

Pharaoh Niuserre: Abu Gurab Solar temple.

It's essential to take into consideration, the structure of the Solar Temples at Abu Gurab, because, this place also permits to notice the shift from the Pyramidon to the Obelisk since both are primary Sun tracking mean. Although the Obelisk, as it has been said holds a more sophisticated configuration concept and the reason why besides being a Sun-track instrument and a representation of the Pharaoh also is the Sun God itself as Heru or Horus or RA.

At the same time, taking into account that the Obelisk also is the Symbol, which reveals the Heliopolitan influence, with all its worshiping concepts, although, not so prevailing at this time toward Heliopolis. Since the Obelisk was solar worshipping motivation away from the Memphis Osiris-Ptah beliefs.

However at this period of time, of course, it was not as strong, as during the Fourth Dynasty especially when Pharaoh Djedefra, son of Khufu or Kheops, did build his pyramid in Abu Rawash, North of Giza. Thus, closer to Heliopolis, because this Pharaoh also was the High Priest of Heliopolis, the greatest Sun worshiping Sun center in Ancient Egyptian History.

Abu Gurab' likely place where the Obelisk stood.

All of these costly changes and shifts regarding building trends, going from praising the spirit of all the Pharaohs that ever lived, represented by the Sun or Sun temples and the Spirit of all the previous deceased Pharaohs represented by the Gods related to the Moon or the Celestial Sphere. The Sky as eternal abode where all the Celestial gods were supposed to exist, leads to significant disbursements for the Pharaohs and Egypt.

The major dimensions of Pharaoh Sahura Temple or Pharaoh Niuserre, who built a magnificent Solar Temple as well as the tomb of Ti, Ptahshepses, and the Two Brother". Hence, three extraordinary mastabas built for "Eternal needs" of the Hair Dresser and Manicurists of the Royal Family, all of these were priests who professed solar worshiping beliefs, which incurred in high building costs that were covered by the pharaoh's treasure.

Hence, these expenses most likely created conflicts that made the last two Pharaohs of the Fifth Dynasty, stop building solar temples and forced them to change their burial place again from Abusir again to Sakkara. Thus, in the same way, that Pharaoh Shepseskaf went away from Giza to Sakkara at the end of the Fourth Dynasty, setting aside the Monumental Pyramidal burial practice and returned to Memphis, to make again a Mastaba to satisfy the concerning ritual at that time.

This Solar Temples, later during the New Empire period, regained much importance again, sin they were the inspiration of Pharaohs, Mentuhotep II, Hatshepsut and Thotmes III temples in Deir el Bahari, West Valley Luxor.

Circular concave carved stones arranged in a row.

However, is noticeable that even so that this is a solar temple, for such, all the angles should be square, motherless, there also are stones set in a row, which have large concave functional, round carvings, most probably to hold some water practices. A fact, which undoubtedly also shows that certain practices related to the Moon also were performed there.

Therefore, it is shown that lunar rituals were not entirely abandoned in this solar temple at Abu Gurab.

 

Middle Empire Adobe Pyramids

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Adobe Pyramids were built at Dashur and further south, as far as Hawara, during the Middle Egyptian Empire period.

The Middle Egyptian Empire epoch is considered from the 21st until the 17th century B.C. a period that lasted about 400 years. A time when all the territories along the River Nile Valley were unified once again by a strong leader after an intermediate period of divided leadership.

Therefore, since worshiping concepts in Ancient Egypt had changed with time and as other people that did influence them, indeed they could not be the same as those of previous dynasties.

Then, for the reason that it was new people that took power to govern, is reasonable to think that their primary motivation also had to experience considerable changes as new the ideas took their place. Nonetheless, some factors once again did influence to make these massive edifications; mainly their afterlife believes inclinations, which is what reflected much in different aspects of the newer Pyramid burial construction ideas.

During the Middle Empire period, Ancient Egyptians burial practices had a strong drive toward the God Osiris, the god of the West, the God of Life, but also was the ruler of the afterward world, by so the judge of the Dead. Thus, the Night Sun, which is a concept entirely differed from those of Ra or Horus the God of the Day and the early morning rebirth creeds of Gods who were a symbol of Living power in this world and had some imagined regeneration ideas, in a Luminous afterlife-world. Two different points of view, with apparent antagonism between each other.

Factors that without any doubt did make significant changes in their daily life and concepts there-after. Therefore, because of the importance is given to those ideas, brought about, important conceptual factors concerning the nature of the pyramid’s construction material to use for their edification. Therefore, keeping concordance with the concepts of the God Osiris believes, the God of regeneration, the Earth Element, and Germination that go together with ideas which conceived that this World, came about from the Eternal Waters. Rising from those deeps as a mountain of mud by the magical power of the word that this God said to make its creation happen.

Therefore, the material that they used to make the Pyramids was drastically changed again from Stone blocks to Mud-blocks (Adobes), like, the mastabas were built during the pre-dynastic times and the first two Dynastic Dynasties before the first Step Pyramid was constructed at Sakkara during the Third Dynasty by Pharaoh Zoser.

There were also new ways to build Adobe Pyramids.

Even so that the Rebirth of Pyramidal construction came back again, during the Middle Egyptian Empire period, which is the time when many pyramids of large sizes built from Dashur to Hawara, cities located South of Memphis. However, never reached the magnitude or splendor that Giza ever had, since they were following the Gods Osiris-Ptah doctrines, did employ mostly Mud-blocks rather than Roc-blocks as construction material.

Hence, today, these outstanding architectural examples built with Adobes that with time get integrated to the ground again, have lost their shape and now appear to be mounds or Mud hills, immense but shapeless, because they have lost all their distinctive characteristics and symbolic decoration. As it can be appreciated the few adobes left in the circumference of this Pyramid.

As well, on accounts that Adobe, blocks do not have a much structural consistency, like Stone blocks, do. Egyptians took a shortcut, and besides using only superimposed terraces, also started to build pyramids, using mountains as a construction base, and by such, were able to make the higher buildings. Thus, they did reshape the mountains configuration with mud-blocks to obtain the final overlook.

However, in any case, it was a nice try, but eventually, the mud-blocks or adobes, with time became mud again and were blown by the wind, which by now, also they also had suffered much deterioration there is not much left of their original finish looks.

Pharaoh’ Amenemhet III, Black Pyramid.

Amenemhet III (1807 BC - 1798 BC) a twelve Dynasty pharaoh who ruled during the 19th Century B.C. Build his first Pyramid at Dashur, following God Osiris's concepts, in preference at that time, which most likely were the motivations for using Adobes or Mud blocks as its primary construction material.
These Pharaoh tried something new, make a pyramid entirely on adobes, at Dashur, since it is at a close distance from Sakkara and Memphis, the center of irradiation of that doctrine at the Time.

This Pyramid today is known as the Black Pyramid, because of its color appearance. The reason that this pyramid failed was the desired pyramid’s height that they wanted to reach.
Was projected to achieve an altitude of about 250 feet (75 meters) high. But even so, that this construction project, did have a significant base, over 350 feet (100 meters) wide. Nonetheless, it’s construction generated a great weight, much over the adobe’s basic capabilities. Thus, the structure gave way and as it failed the pyramid became useless. Consequently, the whole idea had to be entirely aborted and set aside.

Hawara Pyramid is a huge Mud brick building but since it was reinforced by an internal stone structure has withstood the over-all adobe’s weight.

Pharaoh Amenemhet III was one of the most powerful pharaohs during the Middle Empire Time. Matter of fact, after his Black Pyramid failure, he did not give up. Instead, he moved his pyramid building project to Hawara, in the Fayum area, farther south of Dashur.

Then, putting aside the All Mud development idea, he tried once again to build an Adobe Pyramid, but this time, he made the sustaining structure out of stones, to cope with the Adobe’ weight. For such, even so that this pyramid has lost much of its original appearance, still has a stunning looking presence and is believed that it was the location that this Pharaoh used this monument as his burial place.

The Temple built in front of this Pyramid has a Labyrinth shape, which gives it a much significance interest. In any case, up to this moment, the Hawara Pyramid is the last considerable known Pyramid built in Ancient Egypt. Pharaoh Seostris or Senwosret I also built similar Pyramid at Lisht or el-Lisht, like the ones at Kahun or El-Lahun. Nonetheless, this Pharaoh as well did make two obelisks at Heliopolis and a Chapel at Karnack.

Otherwise, except a small pyramid built at Abydos during the beginning of the New Empire period a few hundred years later, by Pharaoh Ahmose. Who did build a Pyramid at Abydos over a mountain using stone casing, there are not any other pyramidal construction activity of importance, known up to date, in the entire current Egyptian territory, as Egyptians rulers lost interest in that type of burial and did put aside the pyramids idea.