Great Pyramids Giza Valley


Giza Plateau

Sky Goddesses

"Sun God' Necropolis." The Fourth Dynasty Egyptian Pharaohs burial compound. Nonetheless, the greatest Human Architectural Development achievement ever. It has been told that encouraging people, make them move mountains. But, mountains in Giza, in fact, were made, polished, and engraved by men! A striking event, which generated profitable trades and an enormous jobs availability that brought with it, in all probabilities the greatest World bonanza ever up to its time and millenniums to come.


Table of Content

01: Giza Plateau Pyramid's concepts, cause, and attributes.

02: Giza Plateau, as a significant building development.

03: Giza temples stone’s styles.

04: Distinctive architectonic features.

05: Inverted Pyramidon' Obelisk Link.

06: The pyramidal burial trend setting.

07: Abusir' 5th, and 6th Dynasties Pyramids.

08: Middle Empire Adobe Pyramids.

     More chapters will be added soon.


Giza Plateau Pyramid's concepts, cause, and attributes.


Giza Plateau' pyramids viewed from the Southern side.

After the accomplishment of Pharaoh Seneferu by building the "Red Pyramid" in the area of Dashur, the first True Pyramid ever made in Egypt and the World, his descendants, sons and grandson, pharaohs Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaure, also known by their Greek names as Cheops, Khefren, and Micerino.

This Pharaohs dynasty, breaking with the tradition of being buried in Sakkara. Moved away from Memphis City area grounds to Dashur, and later to Giza Plateau, now located in the vicinity of modern Cairo. Complex. Where they did, build the biggest pyramids ever.
However, at that time the nearest town was called Annu (in ancient Egyptian language) or Heliopolis (in Greek): the greatest Sun worshipping Center of the Pharaonic Egyptian period.
Precisely, at a time, when came about an active movement towards a change in beliefs and orientations. As people' desire was to get away from the long-time imposed traditional, centralized Memphis City concepts.

In other words, going from Ptah-Osiris deities' Sky or Moon ideas representing the integrated Dead pharaohs spirits in the afterlife matters, towards different views related to Sun Worship or the combined Spirit of all the Pharaoh' d that ever lived in a Sun God' from, like Ra or Horus.

Hence, people at that time were more inclined to believe in rebirth, strength, new life, and daily Sky affairs than death matters in the afterlife. Although, there also is a possibility that they moved there to develop their own thoughts or stay in between the influences of the two concepts influential Centers, Heliopolis, and Memphis. Nonetheless, at Giza, can be seen that, during Khufu's reign, due to the significant number of Mastabas built in the eastern and western part of his pyramid shows that at this time period, had a marked tendency towards the Leader Worship tendency.

Ancient Egyptians believe that Pharaoh Kheops (their living Sun God) spirit in a way, was incorporated to the pyramid, a fact that endowed this place, a Ruler' dwelling Temple, the utmost sacred place for all his followers and generations to come.
The Pyramids were built by those who believed that in the afterlife, they were going to share a common place with the pharaoh's benefits in the eternal life.

Although, a made-up power feature that was attributed to their ruler, nonetheless, convinced all, and made them entirely sure that they were going to have an eternal life full of pleasures and luxuries. A continuous existence, somewhere in the sky or heaven, with more refined pleasures and richness than those that they have enjoyed living on Earth.
Like the epitaph at the end of the cartouche of most of the Egyptian pharaoh states: "Gives (the Pharaoh) Eternal Life like Ra (the Sun God)." Since they thought that, the Sun will rise in the East and will set in the West every day forever and ever, as it has been seen by generations in the past they concluded that it will continue to happen forever.


Viewing the Pyramid's complex from the Southern side, Menkaure or Micerino' Pyramid, seems to be as tall and huge like the other Pyramids.

Recapitulating and giving additional information in Giza Plateau Pyramids Compound. The accomplishment of the Great Pyramid became the World highest manmade buildings never equaled or surpassed for a few thousand years, at times when the ancient Egyptians reached their "Golden Time" period. A fact that besides being a local success, they also achieved a historic landmark in mankind development process.

Do to the viewing perspective effect, from the South, pharaohs Khafra and Menkaure Pyramids apparent being taller than the Pyramid at the end. Although it was the first and biggest pyramid that was ever built the Giza Plateau, it is the real Great Pyramid made by Pharaoh Khufu or Cheops (Its Greek name). However, there is much more to say about this famous pyramid' complex.

The Second Pyramid that was built at Giza Plateau by Pharaoh Khafra or Khefren (Its Greek name), even so that it is not the biggest, has important size dimensions. Having a square base about 689 feet (210 meters) wide and is 472 feet (144 meters) high. Viewed from the south

The third pyramid at Giza was built by Pharaoh Menkaure or Micerino (Its Greek name) pyramid is the smallest, even smaller than the previously three pyramids, built by Pharaoh Seneferu in Meidum and Dashur. Because Menkaure's pyramid is just about 213 feet (65 meters) high; slightly taller than the "Step Pyramid" which is about 196 feet (60 meters) high. Nevertheless, Menkaure's pyramid is better known than Pharaoh's Seneferu Pyramids' for being located and associated with the two other bigger pyramids of pharaohs Khufu and Khafra.



Giza Plateau, as a significant building development.


Giza Plateau, Egyptian Fourth Dynasty Pharaohs burial development compound.

Egyptian Fourth Dynasty Pharaohs burial compound, was built with the idea of creating, a wishful, and expected spirit's delightful place to live forever and ever, with the greatest an exquisite pleasures on hand at any time.

Perhaps, it was only an ideal, a day-dream or whatever, but did work, in practice, brought sufficient union, collaboration, and disposition that made Ancient Egyptians put all their full effort to create that magnificent empire. Nonetheless, perhaps the greatest motivation ever, a precursor, and significative idea that shaped the developing of the economy at the emerging time of this civilization.

Giza Pyramids

Well planned and delineated streets with big stone blocks structures on each side and ritualistic columns at the intersection.

Even now, taking into account that the entire Giza area, including Pyramids and all the other buildings in that zone, makes for an enormous urban development sector, even so that it was built for the dead and today for the living. However, no matter how this building conglomerate can be understood. It is a well-planed city with well-demarked streets, full of temples, mansions and houses, much like nowadays well done urban planning.

Furthermore, considering that most of the building passion took place during the reign of Pharaoh Khufu or Kheops. Which was not equal to, by thousands of years later.
Therefore, since this building process, did create a numerous capacitated jobs demand never seen before, can be said that Giza was the earliest, and greatest world economy development ever accomplished during this world cultural awakening.

Giza Pyramids

On the eastern side of the Pharaoh's Khufu or Khefren pyramid complex, are also smaller pyramids, with their own individual Mortuary Temples, which were built for the Pharaoh's Family.

Along with the well-known Three Great Pyramids, up to the moment, at least, there are eight other pyramids at Giza Plateau. By now, the Great or Khufu' pyramid has four, Kheops or Khafra one, and Micerino or Menkaure three.

At the side of the Pharaoh's Khufu or Khefren pyramid complex, are also found smaller pyramids built for the Pharaoh's Family, with their own individual Mortuary Temples. Since they considered to make about the Cardinal Points, for such, these small or Secondary-satellite Pyramids were built on the East side, in front of Pharaoh Khufu's (or Cheops') pyramid.

Because, of the stone blocks form, Casing or filling evidence, at the bottom of their structure, show that some of them were True Pyramids of similar shape-form as the main Pyramid. Matter of fact up to this moment, on the East side of the Great Pyramid, are found four Pyramids.

Which belong to the pharaoh's family, one to Hetepheres I Khufu or Kheops' Mother (Pharaoh Seneferu Wife). And other probably to one of his sons or the Pharaoh' own Ka (certain spiritual-form), which also could have been honored by a True Pyramid, but was made of much smaller dimensions than the main Pyramid has.

Giza Strets

Giza also had Avenue like delineation for smaller Pyramids.

Streets definitively had their demarking importance, as it is possible to appreciate, there also were Avenues, which included Pyramids. As it had been told before, they were reserved for the Royal Family. However, it is probable that a True or Step Pyramids depended likely on the fact if it was going to be dedicated to a Man or Woman gender since it is probably that this designation had incumbency to a different Day or Night sphere or Moon and Sun Sky stages.

Because, at that time, feminine and masculine natures were taken as symbols to differentiate Day from the Night and Moon from the Sum. However, with the same values as the Moon and Sun had the same apparent size. Nonetheless, the knew that they orbited or circulated in the Sky at a different height.

Pharaoh Menkaure's Pyramid has three Satellite Step Pyramids at the southern side, likely made to perform rituals dedicated to the Royal Family, and Moon worshiping purposes.

On the other hand, Pharaoh Menkaure also did build, three Step Pyramids on the southern side of his pyramid. Hence, it is necessary to note that the sizes of the Secondary pyramids are much smaller as they were meant to be for the family relatives, mother, wife, sons, and others that had closely collaborated with the pharaoh' government affairs during his reign. At the Time of these events, women were not secluded, on the contrary, they had a prominent role in Egyptian affairs and decisions, therefore, is noteworthy to mention that Menkaure's grandmother, Queen Hetepheres II. Whose name means something like The Highest Peace or The Peace of the Highest, had an influential role in Ancient Egypt Fourth Dynasty, as she outlived all the True Pyramid Builders of tat Dynasty.

Queen Hetepheres II, was the granddaughter of Pharaoh Seneferu, and Pharaoh Khufu's daughter, she married Pharaoh Djedefra or Djedefre, who succeeded Pharaoh Kheops, but he does not make his pyramid at Giza. Instead, he builds at Abu-Roach, farther North as will be explained later. Furthermore, Hetepheres II daughter, married Pharaoh Khafra and so due to her kinship relationship, by becoming Pharaoh Menkaure's grandmother, which gave her right to exert an influential power in the government affairs and related matters. This Smooth Triangular colossal Pyramidal Style structure feature, called, The True Pyramid, lasted a relatively short period of time in Giza Plateau. Because, Pharaoh Menkaure or Micerino, passed away, before he could see his Pyramid being finished. Therefore, his pyramid had to be completed by his son and successor Pharaoh Shepseskaf, who broke away from this tradition. This Pharaoh chose, not to be buried in such pyramidal style rather he used a Steps or Mastaba like Tomb, and decided to go back to Sakkara in the Memphis City area, again as the Pharaohs of the Third Dynasty did and Fifth and Six Dynasty will follow. Although, the pyramidal construction restarted again and Solar temples started to appear.

Bottom line, the building frenzy during this time period, as a result, brought with it an unmatched abundant work source never saw before, a fact that for sure motivated a massive source of prosperity, a great economic boom that benefited most of the population. Therefore, it was most likely that Pharaoh Khufu, the main responsible to generate this great incentive, became one of the greatest kings that ever ruled Egypt.

For such relevant circumstance, he was taken as a Prosperity God by most of the people who were his followers by many generations to come, till the last breast of the Egyptian Pharaonic period.


Giza temples stone’s styles.

The Temples built on the East side of the Pyramids at Giza have marked differences in decorative and structural matters from the Zoser’ Sakkara pyramid burial complex.
Presenting modifications not only in the proportions of the volume of Pyramid-Temple in the well-known in Sakkara’s Steps-Pyramid compound but as well in the constructions and distribution of the worshiping and burial area adjacent to the central pyramid, in comparison with the Fourth Dynasty assembly at Giza Valley. Apparently grounded in their worshiping concept on the Living or Death Pharaoh’ spirit. In other words, Day and Night, Sun or Lunar (Sky) preferences.

In Sakkara, most of the buildings expansion area seem to follow the North to South direction, likely inspired by the observation the trajectory of the constellations and Moon in the Sky during the night, on reasons of the Ecliptic or Zodiacal path. Though, to be the afterwards dwelling place of all the previous Pharaoh that ever lived became only one divine spirit, like God Osiris was understood.

However, Giza shows an alignment from East to West, about their idea of the Sun’s Yearly and Daily Path. The Sun lighted Sky where all the supposedly living Pharaoh’s spirits as one deal in the Daylight Sky as Ra, Horus or any other Sun God to enlighten and gave the right to rule Egypt to the living Pharaoh on Earth.

Giza Pyramids

Giza temples had a smooth, thick looking style line.

The main temples at Giza burial conglomerate present a sober finishing line with a weighty looking appearance. Also differing from Sakkara where numerous motifs abound representing columns, snakes appear as decorations motives, which are missing Giza.

Likewise, columns differ in their in their structure and design, setting aside decorations and symbolic items. And instead of having the shaft round, it is angular, it is made by four right angles of 90° degrees each, which seen from above, in Sakkara is a circle, thus, is substituted for a square in Giza in most of their columns design.
Although, there also are some smaller temples at Giza presenting round column but have a more simple finishing without many decorative signs, a detail that shows that they did hold the highest regard for Solar rather than the Lunar afterwards expectations.

Hence, hoping that the day after they will spiritually become part of or integrate into a Sky Sun’s living power entity (Ra) rather than a Moon or Sun Night deity (Osiris) to be able to live forever and ever, surrounded by great pleasures.

However, concerning the angular columns shaft side looks, is probable that they were made rectangular, with the idea to represent the Zodiacal band or yearly planetary drive in the Sky, the Sun’s domain rather than round like the Celestial Sphere circular horizon.

Giza Pyramids

External wall’ stone blocks.

Stone blocks were of great importance at times of the Fourth Dynasty, its debut during the Third dynasty to build the Step-Pyramid was a total transformation in world architecture permitting to build mayor height buildings. By the time of the Fourth Dynasty, around Pharaoh’s Khufu or Kheops Great Pyramid can be seen a period of significant innovation, since each mastaba shows varied and individual characteristic from the region or place from where their builders did came.

The external blocks sizes, alignment and polishing of the stone used to build the mastabas, shows that each region had its identifiable marked individual characteristics. Which in addition to showing the building strength and durability to achieve, also display the knowledge they had to choose, make and polish the blocks used in each construction.
The same applies to the Pyramids, the style used in each of them also significantly differs, which makes it look that there were different groups with entirely different characteristics, skills and concepts following each of the Pharaohs in their personal conceptual ideas, here and in the afterwards world.

Giza Pyramids

Strange protuberances (bumps) found in Menkaure’ Pyramid external stone blocks.

Pharaoh's Menkaure (Greek name Micerino) Pyramid in its outer walls presents, numerous stones with this two protuberances or bumps, a detail not current in any other pyramid in the area. Hence, since there is no reason to explain this phenomenon, it is possible to say that is a peculiar characteristic that the stone workers who built this pyramid used as distinctiveness to identify their guild or individual concept that did have.

Giza Pyramids

Small well-polished, red stone blocks were us for sacred places’ internal walls.

Well-polished, small size Red granite blocks, were used to make the interior temples walls. Their presence shows a particular location of much importance for their worshiping paraphernalia.

Giza Pyramids

Framed green stone blocks are also other distinctive characteristic found at Menkaure's Secondary-pyramids.

Well-polished green stone block with a frame around is also a particular feature found in one of the adjacent Secondary or Satellite Pyramids on the South side of Menkaure or Micerino Pyramid. These small pyramids contiguous where dedicated to the Pharaoh's family in especial to the wife or mother.

Because, in Ancient Egypt the Queen represented the Sky-goddess Hathor, related to the Moon Sky sphere and the color Green to Osiris as a symbol of revival. It is most certainly that these pyramids are also in representation of the Moon domain and to the Night Sun and the God Osiris World, as well associated with the female counterpart of Nature, which the Queen represented as Goddess on Earth. Nonetheless, conforming to their beliefs, includes the path or invisible imagined body of the Night Sun as the Masculine corresponding side.




Distinctive architectonic features.

Giza Pyramids

There are other smaller temples and altars built on the East side of Pharaoh' Khufu or Kheops Pyramid.

Giza is not only Pyramids, undoubtedly, but it is also a city like a necropolis, which has many intricate constructions, reflecting a continuous ritualistic activity. Because, there are buildings that have altars and multiple rooms, naturally, is a reason to think that they were not built for the one-day event, but a permanent burial and commemorative events that likely were carry on before and after the Pharaoh' entombment date.

Their size certainly denotes that its concurrence was frequented by large groups of people, participating in regular offerings ceremonies and other particular needs, not only directly related to the Pharaoh but to their own family and/or social and commercial advantages.

Giza Pyramids

Giza architectonic features besides the Pyramids vary from simple mastabas to more complicated structures.

The diversity of Stone blocks structures evidently shows that Egypt had a period of trial and experimentation for their development. A factor, which indicates the point of origin of such method or technique. As well reveals a period of general economic well-being throughout the entire nation, since each edification reflected the economic status of the region it represented.

Giza Pyramids

At Giza, there are many other relative smaller Steps-pyramids, True-pyramids and temples but Mastabas are the main architectural exponents that were built there.

Pyramids experimentation, also continued during this period as it can be seen at Giza, using part of a mountain as the base structure they did build in mastaba like stages that can be defined as a pyramid.
Nonetheless, all these buildings represented a place in the Sky or Temple, where the individuals buried there will rest in the afterwards life. A personal communication contact point with their family or other related persons to obtain gifts and offering from whoever cared about he or she.

Giza Pyramids

Giza Mastaba entrance, with door frame with slab-like jambs, each inscribed with a Serekh like design.

The fact that the gate wall frames of this particular mastaba at Giza, look like or were meant to be two slabs, associates the Jambs, with Slabs and Columns. Therefore, since each jamb has an inscription resembling a Serekh or a mastaba, presenting an entrance. For such, the access to some imaginary place in the Sky as it is shown on the lintel of many other false doors illustrations. (Mastaba/ Chapter 09: Niches and Arches were the Afterlife world's gateway).

Saqqara Mastaba is presenting a three concentric niches or false doors entry assembly. (For more info in this image)

These successive symbolic archways apparently are done to show the entry link to corresponding imaginary hierarchical worlds in the afterlife. Sine the most likely believes that their heaven also had an equal division as the social life did. And each jamb had its guardian that permitted to climb to their corresponding Sky level, represented in each lintel.

It is necessary to note that all the individuals, drawn in this representation, correspond to the same person to whom the Mastaba was made for, because, it was thought that their spirit could be present in various places at the same time.

Giza Pyramids

A lintel and two jambs in the most essential form to describe a mastabas entry concept.

The mastaba entry, was not just a decorative item, was conceived as a means to be an entry in afterlife world, for that reason, even so that their style varies, they were built in a constant repetitive conceptual form that denotes a clear fundamental thought behind.

Although, it is the most essential structural form, also explain the necessary elements thought possible to satisfy their concept that they had to supposedly reach the Sky. Starting with their rectangular form, which puts in evidence their association to the Sun’s path in the Sky, during the Morning, and Afternoon represented by the jambs and Midday by the lintel. Consequently, they might also be in representation of birth, death and every day dealing with the afterlife world as jambs could be thought as the up and down the ground (floor) contact with the sky (lintel).

Giza Pyramids

The columns and the lintel are the elementary symbolism to show its endowed access to the world beyond associated with the Sky.

Because these two columns are supporting a beam, substantially resemble the archway of a mastaba entry, since, in a way, the beam is in the place of the lintel and the columns apparently stand for the jambs.

However, since there is two woman figure carved face to face in each column, presenting a peculiarity, of being depicted, one with two right hands and the other with two left hands.

Giza Pyramids

Because the way that these women are depicted in the columns. Since, the woman at left has the two Left hands, and the woman at right has two Right hands. As it is a repeated detail in the inverse direction. Therefore, it is not a mistake, but a concept.

Them, having that In Ancient Egypt, a women figure were used to represent the Sky, for such factor, the two female characters can not be in representation of two human personages.
Thus, instead, they are actually representative images likely in place of the north and south or east and west side parts of the Sky.

Therefore, these details are showing that these women, certainly are not an actual World own figures indicator but a Heaven or Sky symbolic representation. Which positively associate the columns with the Sky or more precisely, a way or pathway to reach it.

Giza Pyramids

A double lintel with two successive gates with their own sets of jambs.

A double lintel with the double entry is probably showing two different level locations where the body and soul of the individual buried there was expected to rest forever.

The jambs are made in tree sectors like the walls, which most likely indicate the various levels of Sky dwelling places, and clearly shows that the entrances concepts to those levels.

Therefore, besides the doors, the jambs also were thought to be the gateways or means to reach the different Sky stages. A reasonable idea, and most probably the main significant reason that led to use columns as a symbolic, ritualistic feature.

Giza Pyramids

On the entrance porch, were added round or square columns.

As it can be appreciated, the double doors concepts in the mastaba entrance are made with the idea to represent an entry porch, before reaching the final resting place.
The porch, size is defined by a square lintel, even so that the columns can be either square or round

Giza Pyramids

Dendera Temple facade columns confirm this conceptual idea.

In Dendera Temple façade can be seen this idea widely expanded:

The lintel, a square beam like the other porches saw before, has multiple deities performing the rituals in the event for that matter, at certain Sky level.

At right, is the square column, key sustain of the building at its four corners. However, in matters of decoration, this column is decorated by stages, where sky deities are depicted sitting on a throne, which apparently are also indicating multiple overlapping Sky division as levels or social status.

The round columns, undoubtedly show that Goddess Hathor’s was the means that made possible to reach the House of God Heru or Horus, As her name House of Horus, states. Hence, the Sun’s God House, saying the Sky’s Sun god’s Domain.

Thus, as Goddess Hathor also was known to give the greatest help to the deceased in the afterlife. Therefore, the round columns must be representing the body of the goddess, which is standing by the spiritual means to make possible for a spirit to reach the Sun’s Path ambiance or Heaven.

Likewise, as it was thought that the Sun went through her body after she was supposed to swallow the Sun, at the end of the afternoon. To make him rebirth again at the break of dawn and by so gave birth to the Sun every day for ever and ever, and to all the spirits that were privileged to integrate to the Sun God so they could reach heaven and eternity as well.

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